There is uncertainty on the signals males use to track breeding females, but whatever it is, it is amazingly accurate. They have been recorded following the tracks of the females ready to mate, for more than 100 kilometres. Rivalry is very intense. Males battle ferociously between themselves to win a mate, culminating in the strongest or largest male overpowering any competition, chasing them away. To exercise domination, the male bear will lower his head, flatten his ears and submit a hisslike roar from an open mouth. They can be frightening encounters, sometimes resulting in broken teeth and scars around the head and shoulders. Rarely do fights end in fatality however. These alpha males can mate with many breeding females in any given season.
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